12 June 2003 Progress towards the development of a 157-nm photoresist for carbon- dioxide-based lithography
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Abstract
Photolithography requires organic solvents and aqueous base in the spin-coating, development, and stripping of photoresists. Carbon dioxide, an inexpensive, plentiful, and environmentally sound solvent with tunable solvency, has been proposed as an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional solvents in the electronics industry. Replacing current solvents with CO2 stems from the inherently low viscosity and surface tension of CO2. These properties allow for development of sub 0.1 μm images without image collapse, a potential problem in aqueous development. Carbon dioxide has been utilized for the synthesis of fluoropolymers. Therefore, given the high solubility of amorphous fluoropolymers in CO2, and the necessity of fluoropolymers for the next generation of photolithography (157 nm), CO2 may be an environmentally sound solvent for the synthesis, application, development, and stripping of photoresists. To accomplish this goal, several fluorinated monomers (tetrafluoroethylene, chlorotrifluoroethylene, hexafluoropropylene and vinylidene difluoride) have been copolymerized in dense carbon dioxide with norbornene and norbornene analogs. The resulting polymers have been characterized to determine molecular weight, comonomer incorporation, Tg, CO2 solubility, and absorbance at 157 nm and 193 nm.
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Luke A. Zannoni, Luke A. Zannoni, Jay Simhan, Jay Simhan, Joseph M. DeSimone, Joseph M. DeSimone, } "Progress towards the development of a 157-nm photoresist for carbon- dioxide-based lithography", Proc. SPIE 5039, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XX, (12 June 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.483718; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.483718
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