28 July 2003 Bio-inspired design of intelligent materials
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Several examples of sensors and actuators inherent in biological species are reviewed with emphasis on their mechanisms for a given set of stimuli. Examples include, action plants (Venus flytrap, Cucumber tendrils) and bamboo, and algae. Based on these examples and their mechanisms, we designed artificial actuators, FGM piezo actuators and electroactive polymer actuators.
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Minoru Taya, "Bio-inspired design of intelligent materials", Proc. SPIE 5051, Smart Structures and Materials 2003: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD), (28 July 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.484425; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.484425

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