28 July 2003 Design of ER fluids for commercial applications
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ER fluid devices range from high-power actuators generating kilo-Newton forces, to small-scale applications, such as a tactile graphics tablet. Each application presents different performance requirements for an ER fluid with respect to yield stress, current consumption, zero-field viscosity, and temperature response. This paper discusses the technological advantages that these devices can offer, together with their limitations. The focus will be on how the properties of the ER fluid can be tailored for suitability to a particular application. A case study of a large array of mini-actuators, for use as a graphics tablet for the visually impaired, is presented to illustrate design principles for ER valves.
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Alexander E. Smith, Alexander E. Smith, Linda F. Evans, Linda F. Evans, "Design of ER fluids for commercial applications", Proc. SPIE 5051, Smart Structures and Materials 2003: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD), (28 July 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.484713; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.484713

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