5 August 2003 Actuation development and evaluation for INSTAR: inertially stabilized rifle
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In the use of piezoelectric actuators, it is a clear choice to use stack (or d33 mode) architectures when very high force is required or benders (or d31 mode) architectures when very high displacements are needed. However, the choice isn't as clear for applications that need simultaneously a moderate force and displacement. This paper presents one such application, INSTAR that is posed with this dilemma. INSTAR is a novel rifle system that has an inertially stabilized barrel via an active suspension based on piezoelectric actuation. While the frequency required for this application was low (~10Hz), the displacement (± 200 to 400 microns) and the force (22-45 N) are moderate. Two very different actuation approaches were developed, modeled, fabricated and experimentally validated within the INSTAR demonstration platform: 1) a d31 approach based on the Recurve architecture with focus on generating higher forces than is common for d31 actuators and 2) a d33 approach based upon a compliant mechanism designed using topology optimization with focus on providing more amplified strain than is common for d33 actuators. Both approaches were successful in meeting the INSTAR requirements, but each had its on advantages and disadvantages.
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Diann E. Brei, Diann E. Brei, James Vendlinski, James Vendlinski, Mary I. Frecker, Mary I. Frecker, Smita Bharti, Smita Bharti, } "Actuation development and evaluation for INSTAR: inertially stabilized rifle", Proc. SPIE 5056, Smart Structures and Materials 2003: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, (5 August 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.483458; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.483458

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