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22 September 2003 Recent advances in very large area avalanche photodiodes
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The Avalanche Photodiode (APD) is a unique device that combines the advantages of solid state photodetectors with those of high gain devices such as photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). APDs have internal gain that provides a high signal-to-noise ratio. APDs have high quantum efficiency, are fast, compact, and rugged. These properties make them suitable detectors for important applications such as LADAR, detection and identification toxic chemicals and bio-warfare agents, LIDAR fluorescence detection, stand-off laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and nuclear detectors and imagers. Recently there have been significant technical breakthroughs in fabricating very large APDs, APD arrays, and position sensitive APD arrays (PSAPD). Signal gain of over 10,000 has been achieved, single element APDs have been fabricated with active area greater than 40 cm2, monolithic pixelated arrays with up to 28 x 28 elements have been fabricated, and position sensitive APDs have been developed and tested. Additionally, significant progress has been made in improving the fabrication process to provide better uniformity and high yield, permitting cost effective manufacturing of APDs for reduced cost.
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Michael R. Squillante, James Christian, Gerald Entine, Richard Farrell, Arieh M. Karger, Mickel McClish, Richard Myers, Kanai S. Shah, David Taylor, Kofi Vanderpuye, Peter Waer, and Mitchell Woodring "Recent advances in very large area avalanche photodiodes", Proc. SPIE 5071, Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Defense and Law Enforcement II, (22 September 2003);

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