10 October 2003 Refractive GaAs microlenses monolithically integrated with InGaAs and HgCdTe photodetectors
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Abstract
Fast refractive microlenses are increasingly important as optical concentrators for uncooled infrared photodetectors. They are used in purpose to improve performance and speed of response. Refractive microlenses formed directly onto semiconductor materials draw much attention because they facilitate monolithic integration with active element of infrared photodetector. Gallium arsenide due to its superior optical and mechanical properties is a material of choice for fabrication of microlenses. We have developed process for fabrication of GaAs refractive microlenses monolithically integrated with InGaAs and HgCdTe photodetectors, both as single element devices and two-dimensional arrays. Specially designed machine tool has been used for preparation of relatively large single spherical GaAs microlenses with 0.5 mm-10 mm diameter. The microlens-detector arrays were prepared using a combination of ion milling and wet chemical etching. The typical process involves one photolithography, one ion milling and one or two chemical etching steps. More advanced procedures have also been proposed to improve quality of the lenses. The lenses can be optimized as optical concentrators for IR photodetectors with circular, square, rectangular and other geometries. This process is especially convenient for fabrication of lenses with size less than 50 μm, but larger lenses with size exceeding 300 μm can be prepared as well with some modifications of the fabrication procedures.
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Jozef Piotrowski, Jozef Piotrowski, Henryk Mucha, Henryk Mucha, Zbigniew Orman, Zbigniew Orman, Jaroslaw Pawluczyk, Jaroslaw Pawluczyk, Jacek Ratajczak, Jacek Ratajczak, Janusz Kaniewski, Janusz Kaniewski, } "Refractive GaAs microlenses monolithically integrated with InGaAs and HgCdTe photodetectors", Proc. SPIE 5074, Infrared Technology and Applications XXIX, (10 October 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.511997; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.511997
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