16 September 2003 Automated target recognition using passive radar and coordinated flight models
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Rather than emitting pulses, passive radar systems rely on illuminators of opportunity, such as TV and FM radio, to illuminate potential targets. These systems are particularly attractive since they allow receivers to operate without emitting energy, rendering them covert. Many existing passive radar systems estimate the locations and velocities of targets. This paper focuses on adding an automatic target recognition (ATR) component to such systems. Our approach to ATR compares the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of targets detected by a passive radar system to the simulated RCS of known targets. To make the comparison as accurate as possible, the received signal model accounts for aircraft position and orientation, propagation losses, and antenna gain patterns. The estimated positions become inputs for an algorithm that uses a coordinated flight model to compute probable aircraft orientation angles. The Fast Illinois Solver Code (FISC) simulates the RCS of several potential target classes as they execute the estimated maneuvers. The RCS is then scaled by the Advanced Refractive Effects Prediction System (AREPS) code to account for propagation losses that occur as functions of altitude and range. The Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC2) computes the antenna gain pattern, so that the RCS can be further scaled. The Rician model compares the RCS of the illuminated aircraft with those of the potential targets. This comparison results in target identification.
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Lisa M. Ehrman, Lisa M. Ehrman, Aaron D. Lanterman, Aaron D. Lanterman, } "Automated target recognition using passive radar and coordinated flight models", Proc. SPIE 5094, Automatic Target Recognition XIII, (16 September 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.488039; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.488039

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