A fully optical method to perform any quantum computation with optical waveguide modes is proposed by supplying the prescriptions for a universal set of quantum gates. The proposal for quantum computation is based on implementing a quantum bit with two normal modes of multi-mode waveguides. The proposed universal set of gates has the potential of being more compact and easily realized than other optical implementations, since it is based on planar lightwave circuit technology and can be constructed by using Mach-Zehnder interferometer configurations having semiconductor optical amplifiers with very high refractive nonlinearity in its arms.
Jian Fu, Jian Fu,
"Quantum computations with optical waveguide modes", Proc. SPIE 5105, Quantum Information and Computation, (4 August 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.498150; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.498150