9 May 2003 Investigation of electromigration in copper interconnects by noise measurements
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Proceedings Volume 5112, Noise as a Tool for Studying Materials; (2003) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.497014
Event: SPIE's First International Symposium on Fluctuations and Noise, 2003, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States
Abstract
Electromigration in sub-micron conductors of Cu and CuAl was studied by 1/f noise measurements for the first time. 1/f noise can serve as a very sensitive indicator for electromigration damage: The 1/f noise level is increased by up to two orders of magnitude whereas the resistance of the damaged interconnects is enhanced by less than a factor of two only. The most striking advantage of the 1/f noise measurement technique compared to the methods frequently used at present for electromigration studies (e.g., the Median Time of Failure, MTF technique) is that it is possible to determine the distribution of the activation energies of the processes involved from a single sample at progressive electromigration damaging. In Cu interconnects a strong increase in the number of mobile defects is observed during electromigration damaging whereas the shape of the distribution of the activation energies (maximum between 0.8 and 0.95 eV) does not change much, except shortly before the failure of the interconnect lines where a shift to higher activation energies (maximum: 1.05 eV) is measured. Significantly higher activation energies observed in undamaged and electromigration damaged CuAl0.5wt% interconnects indicate an advanced resistance of CuAl alloys to electromigration when compared to pure Cu lines.
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Vitali Emelianov, Gopal Ganesan, Aleksandar Puzic, Stefan Schulz, Moshe Eizenberg, Hans-Ulrich Habermeier, Hermann Stoll, "Investigation of electromigration in copper interconnects by noise measurements", Proc. SPIE 5112, Noise as a Tool for Studying Materials, (9 May 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.497014; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.497014
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