High leakage current in deep submicron regime is becoming a significant contributor to power dissipation of CMOS circuits as threshold voltage, channel length, and gate oxide thickness are scaled every technology generation. Consequently, the identification and modeling of different leakage components is very important for estimation and reduction of leakage power, especially for low power applications. This paper considers various transistor intrinsic leakage mechanisms including weak inversion, drain-induced barrier lowering, gate-induced drain leakage, gate oxide tunneling, and bad-to-band-tunneling and explores different techniques to reduce leakage power consumption for scaled technologies.
"Leakage control for deep-submicron circuits", Proc. SPIE 5117, VLSI Circuits and Systems, (21 April 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.498181; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.498181