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29 April 2003 Nanomechanics for specific biological detection
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Nanomechanical biosensors have emerged as a promising platform for specific biological. Among the advantages are direct detection without need of labelling with fluorescent or radioactive molecules, very high sensitivity, reduced sensor area, and suitability for integration using silicon technology. Here we have studied the immobilization of oligonucleotide monolayers by monitoring the microcantilever bending. Oligonucleotides were derivatized with thiol molecules for self-assembly on the gold-coated side of a microcantilever. The geometry of the binding and the surface density were studied by mixing derivatized oligonucleotides with spacer self-assembled monolayers and by controlling the oligonucleotide functional group form. These results are compared with fluoresencent and chemiluminescence techniques. Furthermore, we present the first results of direct pesticide detection with microcantilever-based biosensors. Herbicide DDT was detected by performing competitive assays, in which the cantilever was coated with a synthetic DDT hapten, and it was exposured to different rations between the monoclonal antibody and the DDT. A new technique is presented for the detection of the nanomechanical response for biosensing applications, in which the resonant frequency is measured with about two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity. The low quality factor of the microcantilever in liquid is increased up by using an active feedback control, in which the cantilever oscillation is amplified and delayed and it is used as a driving force. The technique has been applied for the detection of ethanol, proteins, and pathogens.
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Mar Alvarez, Laura G. Carrascosa, Javier Tamayo, Ana Calle, and Laura M. Lechuga "Nanomechanics for specific biological detection", Proc. SPIE 5118, Nanotechnology, (29 April 2003);

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