22 October 2003 Simulation of threshold operation of GaInNAs diode lasers
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The advanced three-dimensional fully self-consistent optical-electrical-thermal-gain model of the 1.3-μm (GaIn)(NAs)/GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) has been developed to simulate its room-temperature (RT) continuous-wave (CW) performance characteristics and to enable its structure optimisation. The standard GaInNAs VCSEL structure with an intracavity-contacted configuration exhibits very nonuniform current injection into its active region, whereas a uniform current injection is important in long-wavelength VCSELs for low threshold, high-efficiency and stable-mode operation. Therefore we decided to insert an additional tunnel junction within the active-region neighbourhood. The tunnel junction is shown to enhance effectively hole injection via a lateral electron current, with only a modest increase (a small penalty) in voltage drop and series resistance compared to standard devices.
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Robert P. Sarzala, Pawel Mackowiak, M. Wasiak, T. Czyszanowski, Wlodzimierz Nakwaski, "Simulation of threshold operation of GaInNAs diode lasers", Proc. SPIE 5136, Solid State Crystals 2002: Crystalline Materials for Optoelectronics, (22 October 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.519754; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.519754

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