9 October 2003 Confocal microscopy in transmitted light
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We developed a confocal microscope for transmitted light to visualize fine details in phase objects like unstained biological specimens. The main difficulty of confocal microscopy in transmission is the alignment of illumination and detector pinholes. This alignment was achieved by using "electronic pinholes" on the detector side. As a first step, we were able to image cells in onion skin at greater depths and with higher resolution than by using conventional microscopy.
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Hans-Ulrich Dodt, Klaus Becker, "Confocal microscopy in transmitted light", Proc. SPIE 5139, Confocal, Multiphoton, and Nonlinear Microscopic Imaging, (9 October 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.499676; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.499676

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