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9 October 2003 Photo-induced flip-flop of membrane markers monitored by SHG microscopy
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Photoisomerization properties of amphiphilic stilbazolium markers are used to provoke photo-induced flip-flop in model lipid bilayer membranes. The flip-flop mechanism and dynamics are determined using simultaneous two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy. In absence of illumination, trans- is the dominant conformation, however when an illumination pulse is applied to the membrane markers, photo-induced isomerization provokes a significant increase in the cis- population, whose flip-flop rate was determined to be at least a thousand times greater than that for the trans- marker. Following the illumination pulse, all markers rapidly relax to the trans-conformation.
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Thomas Pons and Jerome Mertz "Photo-induced flip-flop of membrane markers monitored by SHG microscopy", Proc. SPIE 5139, Confocal, Multiphoton, and Nonlinear Microscopic Imaging, (9 October 2003);

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