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30 May 2003 Optical versus tactile geometry measurement: alternatives or counterparts
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This contribution deals with measuring strategies and methods for the determination of several geometrical features, covering the surface micro-topography and the form of mechanical objects. The measuring principles used in optical surface metrology include optical focusing profilers, confocal point measuring and areal measuring sensors as well as interferometrical principles such as white light interferometry and speckle techniques. In comparison with stylus instruments optical techniques provide certain advantages such as a fast data acquisition, in-process applicability or contactless measurement. However, the frequency response characteristics of optical and tactile measurement differ significantly. In addition, optical sensors are commonly more influenced by critical geometrical conditions and optical properties of an object. For precise form measurement mechanical instruments dominate till now. One reason for this may be, that commonly the complete 360 degrees geometry of the measuring object has to be analyzed. Another point is that optical principles such as form measuring interferometry fail in cases of complex object geometry or rougher object surfaces. Other methods, e.g. fringe projection or digital holography, till now do not meet the accuracy demands of precision engineered workpieces. Hence, a combination of mechanical concepts and optical sensors represents an interesting potential for current and future measuring tasks, which require high accuracy and maximum flexibility.
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Peter Lehmann "Optical versus tactile geometry measurement: alternatives or counterparts", Proc. SPIE 5144, Optical Measurement Systems for Industrial Inspection III, (30 May 2003);

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