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22 December 2003 Concurrent measurements of directional reflectance and temperature of a wintertime coniferous forest from space
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Abstract
We measure directional reflectance and daytime temperature of a wintertime coniferous forest from space using data acquired by the Department of Energy's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI). The study site is the Howland experimental forest in central Maine. The data include measurements from all seasons over a one-year period from 2001-2002 but with a concentration in late winter and early spring. The results show variation in both reflectance and temperature with direction and season. The reflectance results compare favorably with previous bidirectional measurements performed at the Howland site. Near-nadir reflectance in the visible bands varies periodically over the year with a high in summer and a low in winter. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance shows dual variation. The canopy reflectance varies as a function of solar and satellite zenith angle, presumably due to a changing proportion of shadows. Furthermore, a NIR pseudo-BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) shows that the canopy brightens in the NIR during fall and winter. Retrieved canopy temperatures are consistently warmer in the off-nadir view by about 2°C, with a small seasonal variation. The seasonal canopy temperature trend is well exhibited, and days with snow on the ground are easily distinguished from days with no snow on the ground. The results also show that the retrieved temperatures are consistently warmer than above-canopy air temperature by about 4°C. This difference is greater for off-nadir views and also appears to be larger in the spring and summer than in the fall and winter.
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Bradley G. Henderson, Lee K. Balick, Andrew P. Rodger, and Paul A. Pope "Concurrent measurements of directional reflectance and temperature of a wintertime coniferous forest from space", Proc. SPIE 5153, Ecosystems' Dynamics, Agricultural Remote Sensing and Modeling, and Site-Specific Agriculture, (22 December 2003); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.506296
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