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12 January 2004 Noise sources and noise suppression in CMOS imagers
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Mechanisms for noise coupling in CMOS imagers are complex, since unlike a CCD, a CMOS imager has to be considered as a full digital-system-on-a-chip, with a highly sensitive front-end. In this paper, we analyze the noise sources in a photodiode CMOS imager, and model their propagation through the signal chain to determine the nature and magnitude of noise coupling. We present methods for reduction of noise, and present measured data to show their viability. For temporal read noise reduction, we present pixel signal chain design techniques to achieve near 2 electrons read noise. We model the front-end reset noise both for conventional photodiode and CTIA type of pixels. For the suppression of reset noise, we present a column feedback-reset method to reduce reset noise below 6 electrons. For spatial noise reduction, we present the design of column signal chain that suppresses both spatial noise and power supply coupling noise. We conclude by identifying problems in low-noise design caused by dark current spatial distribution.
© (2004) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Bedabrata Pain, Thomas J. Cunningham, and Bruce R. Hancock "Noise sources and noise suppression in CMOS imagers", Proc. SPIE 5167, Focal Plane Arrays for Space Telescopes, (12 January 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.512281;

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