27 October 2003 Diamond-turning-assisted fabrication of a high-numerical-aperture lens assembly for 157-nm microlithography
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High performance optical systems can be very labor intensive and costly to fabricate and assemble by traditional methods. With the advent of modern diamond turning methods and other key technologies, more deterministic methods of manufacturing optomechanical assemblies that require extremely tight tolerances have been developed. High numerical aperture lenses that must approach diffraction-limited performance at deep ultraviolet (DUV) wavelengths represent some of the most difficult optical systems to manufacture. Modern diamond turning equipment and advanced assembly techniques have been applied to produce a DUV microlithographic lens assembly that features both precision machined subcells and internal compensators for the correction of residual optical aberrations. The details of this process are described in this paper
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Edmund W. Arriola, Edmund W. Arriola, "Diamond-turning-assisted fabrication of a high-numerical-aperture lens assembly for 157-nm microlithography", Proc. SPIE 5176, Optomechanics 2003, (27 October 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.503765; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.503765

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