10 November 2003 Fabrication of 2D photonic crystal using multiple exposures
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We describe a novel approach to manufacture photonic crystal-based integrated systems based on a two-step process of interferometric patterning followed by optical direct-write of the functional elements. First, the photonic crystal lattice is patterned in photoresist using interferometric lithography, producing a large-area lithographic pattern quickly and easily. Second, the defects in the lattice to implement the functional devices are created using optical direct write with a strongly focused optical beam. After patterning processes, the mask is developed and a dry-etching process is used to transfer the pattern into the substrate. This hybrid approach possesses an advantage in terms of fabrication time and cost as compared to E-beam lithography for the patterning of large-scale photonic crystal-based systems.
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Lin Pang, Wataru Nakagawa, Chiaho Tsai, Yeshaiahu Fainman, "Fabrication of 2D photonic crystal using multiple exposures", Proc. SPIE 5181, Wave Optics and Photonic Devices for Optical Information Processing II, (10 November 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.506900; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.506900

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