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28 January 2004 Methods for measuring single attosecond x-ray pulses
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When an atom is ionized by an x-ray pulse in the presence of a laser field,the drift velocity of photoelectrons shows the phase dependence on the dressing field.We show how to use this effect to characterize single attosecond x-ray pulses.(i)Attosecond streak camera - the distortion of the photoelectron spectra induced by the laser field is used to map the temporal shape of the x-ray pulse to the photoelectron spectra.(ii) Attosecond SPIDER (spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction) - the spectral shearing interferometry of photoelectrons is used to directly retrieve the spectral phase of the x-ray pulse from the photoelectron spectra.
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Jiro Itatani, Fabien Quere, Gennady L. Yudin, and Paul B. Corkum "Methods for measuring single attosecond x-ray pulses", Proc. SPIE 5194, Fourth-Generation X-Ray Sources and Ultrafast X-Ray Detectors, (28 January 2004);

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