28 January 2004 Short-focal-length compound refractive lenses for x-rays
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We have fabricated and tested short focal-length compound refractive lenses (CRLs) composed of micro-bubbles embedded in epoxy. The bubbles were formed in epoxy inside glass capillaries. The interface between the bubbles formed 90 to 196 spherical bi-concave microlenses reducing the overall focal length inversely by the number of lenses. When compared with CRLs manufactured using other methods, the micro-bubble lenses have shorter focal lengths, better imaging, and focusing qualities with higher transmissions and gains for moderate energy x-rays (e.g. 7 - 12 keV). We used beamline 2-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to measure focal lengths between 100-150 mm and absorption apertures between 90 to 120 μm. Transmission profiles were measured giving, for example, a peak transmission of 27 % for a 130-mm focal length CRL at 8 keV. The focal-spot sizes were also measured yielding, for example, an elliptical spot of 5 x 14-μm2 resulting from an approximate 80-fold demagnification of the 0.44 x 1.7 mm2 source. The measured gains in intensity over that of unfocused beam were between 9 and 26. Theoretical gain calculations that include spherical aberrations show that these values are reasonable. The micro-bubble technique opens a new opportunity for designing lenses in the 8-9 keV range with focal lengths less than 30-40 mm.
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Yury I. Dudchik, Yury I. Dudchik, Nicolai N. Kolchevsky, Nicolai N. Kolchevsky, Fadei F. Komarov, Fadei F. Komarov, Melvin A. Piestrup, Melvin A. Piestrup, J. Theodore Cremer, J. Theodore Cremer, Charles K. Gary, Charles K. Gary, Richard H. Pantell, Richard H. Pantell, } "Short-focal-length compound refractive lenses for x-rays", Proc. SPIE 5194, Fourth-Generation X-Ray Sources and Ultrafast X-Ray Detectors, (28 January 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.506298; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.506298

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