7 January 2004 Optimizing an EUV source for 13.5 nm
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Abstract
The emission spectra of laser produced plasmas of pure tin targets are dominated by recombination continuum emission throughout the entire EUV spectral region with intense structure due to line emission dominating the spectra in the 13 - 14 nm region. This feature arises from resonant 4p64dn - 4p54dn+1 + 4p64dn-14f emission lines that are generally concentrated in a narrow band, 5 - 10 eV wide, which overlaps considerably in adjacent ion stages to form an intense unresolved transition array (UTA). Such plasmas are optically thick; the strongest lines are attenuated and frequently appear in absorption. However, if tin comprises a few percent of a predominantly low-Z matrix, the recombination is suppressed and the plasmas can become optically thin to resonance radiation. Under these conditions, resonance line emission can dominate the spectra. The application of a collisional radiative (CR) model, combined with ab initio atomic structure calculations, allows one to estimate the laser plasma parameters that will optimize the UTA as efficient narrow bandwidth emitters of EUV radiation. The dependence on laser power density of both in-band emission and debris generation from pure tin targets is presented. The influence of a pre-pulse on the plasma output is also investigated.
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Gerry D O'Sullivan, Anthony Cummings, Grainne Duffy, Padraig A Dunne, Andrew Fitzpatrick, Paddy Hayden, Luke McKinney, Nicola Murphy, Dave O'Reilly, Emma J Sokell, John White, "Optimizing an EUV source for 13.5 nm", Proc. SPIE 5196, Laser-Generated and Other Laboratory X-Ray and EUV Sources, Optics, and Applications, (7 January 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.504715; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.504715
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