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10 November 2003 Hybrid inorganic-organic aqueous base compatible waveguide materials for optical interconnect applications
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There are a number of organic, inorganic, and hybrid inorganic waveguide materials that are currently being used for a wide variety of optical interconnect applications. Depending upon the approach, waveguide formation is performed using a combination of lithographic and/or reactive ion etch (RIE) techniques. Often the processes involved with waveguide formation require unique processing conditions, hazardous process chemicals, and specialized pieces of capital equipment. In addition, many of the materials have been optimized for silicon substrates but are not compatible with printed wire board (PWB) substrates and processes. We have developed compositions and processes suitable for the creation of optical, planar waveguides on both silicon and PWB substrates. Based on silicate technology, these compositions use lithographic techniques to define waveguides, including aqueous, alkaline development. The resulting planar waveguides take advantage of the glass-like nature of silicate chemistry wedded with the simplicity of standard lithographic processes. Attenuation at typical wavelengths has been found to compete well with the non-silicate-based technologies available today. Single-mode (SM) and multi-mode (MM) waveguides with losses ranging from 0.6 dB/cm @ 1550nm, 0.2 dB/cm @1320nm, and <0.1 @ 850nm are feasible. Composition, process, and physical properties such as optical, thermal and mechanical properties will be discussed.
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Matthew L. Moynihan, Craig Allen, Tuan Ho, Luke Little, Nathan Pawlowski, Nick Pugliano, James G. Shelnut, Bruno Sicard, Hai Bin Zheng, and Garo Khanarian "Hybrid inorganic-organic aqueous base compatible waveguide materials for optical interconnect applications", Proc. SPIE 5212, Linear and Nonlinear Optics of Organic Materials III, (10 November 2003);

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