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30 September 2003 Silicate-based spin-on-glass used as adhesive in micromachining
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The silicate spin-on-glass (SOG) assisted low temperature bonding of different types of glasses on silicon and silicon compounds substrates is widely used in micromachining of analytical devices. Two silicate spin-on glasses (SOG), potassium silicate KASIL 2130 and sodium silicate N/N CLEAR, both of them from PQ Inc., are used. Previous experiments have revealed the formation of clusters and voids in the cured glass layer, that diminishes the bonding quality. A quantitatively analysis of the bonding process in terms of work of adhesion and interfacial tensions enabled us to identify the hot points of the bonding process: the wettability of the surfaces to be bonded, the appropriate concentration of the soluble glass, the adhesion of the spin-on-glass on these surfaces in both liquid and solid state, the spun-on-glass curing process. To overcome these hot points appropriate technological steps are added to the bonding process: O2 plasma and hot HNO3 exposure of glass/silicon respectively silicon nitride surfaces, one minute delay of spinning after sog-deposition on the substrate, increasing up to 125°C the annealing temperature of the spun-on-glass. Smooth, uniform, reproducible glass layers, are obtained and the dependency of their thickness (ranging from 100 Å to 5000 Å) versus silicate concentration of the soluble glass is determined. In order to explain the clusters and voids formation, successively observations of the cured layer after the annealing treatment and after room temperature storage are performed, and show that room temperature storage of non-completely cured silicate layers leads to the formation of clusters. The effect of the concentration of the soluble silicates is qualitatively analyzed, by means of optical microscopy, showing that silicate solutions having 2-3% of wt. are suitable for bonding applications with best results when the obtained glass layer is thin enough.
© (2003) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Mihaela Ilie, Vittorio Foglietti, Antonio Minotti, Elena Cianci, and Bogdan Marculescu "Silicate-based spin-on-glass used as adhesive in micromachining", Proc. SPIE 5227, Advanced Topics in Optoelectronics, Microelectronics, and Nanotechnologies, (30 September 2003);


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