14 August 2003 Ultrawide continuously tunable 1.55-μm vertical air-cavity wavelength-selective elements for VCSELs using micromachined electrostatic actuation
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Abstract
Surface-micromachined 1.55µm vertical-resonator-based devices, capable of wide, continuous, monotonic and kink-free tuning are designed, technologically implemented and characterized. Tuning is achieved by mechanically actuating one or several membranes in a vertical resonator including two ultra-highly reflective DBR mirrors. The tuning is controlled by a single parameter (actuation voltage). The two different layers composing the mirrors reveal a very strong refractive index contrast. Filters including InP/air-gap DBR's (3.5 periods) using GaInAs sacrificial layers reveal a continuous tuning of up to 9% of the absolute wavelength. Varying a reverse voltage (U=0 .. -3.2V) between the membranes, a tuning range up to 142nm was obtained by electrostatic actuation. The correlation of the wavelength and the applied voltage is accurately reproducible without any hysteresis. Theoretical model calculations are performed for symmetric and asymmetric device structures, varying layer thickness and compositions. Models of highly sophisticated color tuning can be found in nature, e.g. in tunable spectral light filtering by trogon and butterfly wings. Bionics transfers the principles of success of nature into natural science, engineering disciplines and applications (here filters and VCSELs for optical communication on the basis of WDM). Light interferes constructively and destructively with nano- and microstructures of appropriate shape, dimensions and materials, both in the artificial DBR structures fabricated in our labs as well as in the natural ones.
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Hartmut H. Hillmer, Hartmut H. Hillmer, Juergen Daleiden, Juergen Daleiden, Cornelia Prott, Cornelia Prott, Friedhard Roemer, Friedhard Roemer, Soeren Irmer, Soeren Irmer, Edwin Ataro, Edwin Ataro, Amer Tarraf, Amer Tarraf, D. Gutermuth, D. Gutermuth, I. Kommallein, I. Kommallein, Martin Strassner, Martin Strassner, } "Ultrawide continuously tunable 1.55-μm vertical air-cavity wavelength-selective elements for VCSELs using micromachined electrostatic actuation", Proc. SPIE 5246, Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communications III, (14 August 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.512525; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.512525
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