Recent laboratory experiments have demonstrated that distributed Raman amplification, advanced modulation formats, optimized dispersion maps, and forward error correction are key technologies for 10-Gb/s and 40-Gb/s DWDM terrestrial transmission over 2000 to 6000 km. The transmission fiber's Raman gain efficiency and dispersion properties are thus important parameters. Future high-bit-rate, high-capacity installed systems will require advanced transmission fibers to extend their reach to at least 2000 km, a distance also specified by a high-profile U.S. government optical networking project. This paper will address a number of the enabling fiber properties, including dispersion, dispersion slope, Raman gain efficiency, and polarization mode dispersion. In addition, several recent experiments will be reviewed, including demonstrations of high-spectral-efficiency terrestrial transmission at 10 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s over 4000 km and 3200 km, respectively, and 10-Gb/s transmission over 2400 km using 200-km spans.