18 February 2004 The effect of intrinsic birefringence in deep UV-lithography
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Abstract
The subject of birefringence induced by spatial dispersion (BISD), also called intrinsic birefringence, recently became an important issue for 157-nm lithography. For the deep UV range, because of intrinsic absorption, only crystalline materials can be used as optical materials for lens manufacturing. The physical properties of crystals are basically affected by spatial dispersion, especially at very short wavelengths. The resulting BISD leads to a serious deterioration of optical image quality. Recently the mathematical formalism for analyzing those aspects of the BISD effect that are relevant for optical design has been published. In this work we give an equivalent but simplified derivation of these results. This mathematical formalism is then applied to optical system design and the correction methodology is discussed. An example of optical system is given that has been corrected for the BISD effect.
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Alexander Serebriakov, E. Maksimov, Florian Bociort, Joseph Braat, "The effect of intrinsic birefringence in deep UV-lithography", Proc. SPIE 5249, Optical Design and Engineering, (18 February 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.512935; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.512935
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