The plasma sources basing on electrical discharges near the surfaces of ferroelectric materials have been described. It was shown that the ferroelectric plasma sources are especially useful for investigations in the field of optical spectroscopy. They have been found to be especially useful for exciting the atoms and ions or rare earth elements.
Jozef Kusz, Jozef Kusz,
"Ferroelectric plasma source as an exciting source for rare earth elements", Proc. SPIE 5258, IV Workshop on Atomic and Molecular Physics, (17 November 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.544384; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.544384