15 December 2003 Photodynamic actinometry using microencapsulates: concepts and developmental approach
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Proceedings Volume 5260, Applications of Photonic Technology 6; (2003) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.543445
Event: Applications of Photonic Technology, 2003, Quebec City, Québec, Canada
This study describes the development of novel, fluorescent-based actinometer encapsulates as a means of discerning volumetric Photodynamic therapy (PDT) dosimetry relative to the incident light and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PDT relies on three main ingredients; oxygen, light and photo-activatable commpounds, although, the PDT response is definately contingent on the site and level of ROS generation. Providing a localized, in situ measurement of luminance and ROS generation is therefore critical when deciphering targetd photodynamci therapy (PDT) protocols in vivo. Toward this end, alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate encapsulates were made using ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate droplets ranging from 75 to 200 μm in diameter. Two candidate dyes, ADS680WS (ADS) and R-phycoerythrin (RPE) were chosen based on photochemistry, chemical stabilty and sensitivity to changing pH and oxygen environments. Alginate beads were constructed with ADS conjugated to the inside and RPE attached to the outside layer. The production of ROS was initiated either chemically using increasing concentrations of potassium perchromate or photochemically using tetra-sulphonated aluminium phosphorescence (AlPcS4). The generation of singlet oxygen was confirmed by the presence of a phosphorescence peak at 1270 nm. The resulting photodegradation and subsequent decrease in fluorescence of RPE was found to correlate very closely (p<0.001) with increasing perchromate or fluence respectively. This effect was independent of pH (6.5-8) and could be inhibited using sodium azide. RPA was not susceptible to photobleaching with light alone (675 nm; 150 J/cm2). Meanwhile, ADS680WS, which absorbs light at 670-690 nm, showed a direct correlation between diminished fluorescence (photobleaching) and incident fluence (675 nm; 0-100 J/cm2). This effect was independent of fluence rate (10-40 mW/cm2). We propose that actinometer encapsulates may prove useful for implanting into potential target areas such as the brain in order to determine the delivered dose of PDT at specific sites within that target area.
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Stuart K. Bisland, Stuart K. Bisland, James Austin, James Austin, Brian C. Wilson, Brian C. Wilson, Lothar D. Lilge, Lothar D. Lilge, } "Photodynamic actinometry using microencapsulates: concepts and developmental approach", Proc. SPIE 5260, Applications of Photonic Technology 6, (15 December 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.543445; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.543445

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