25 March 2004 Formation of Ti:sapphire via high-temperature processing of Ti-implanted sapphire crystals
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Implantation of Ti at MeV energies has been investigated as a means of locally doping sapphire with Ti to form Ti:sapphire: a highly valued laser material. Previous investigations of this approach to synthesis of Ti:sapphire have shown that the Ti3+ luminescence yield continuously increases with increasing annealing temperature up to 1500°C when a reducing ambient of 96% Ar + 4% H is used in an alumina tube furnace. Here we present preliminary results for anneals performed in the high temperature regime of 1500-1700°C in either an Ar or 96% Ar + 4% H ambient in a graphite furnace. Optical characterisation using photoluminescence (PL) has been combined with structural analysis using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling to study the annealing behavior of the ion implanted layers, the evolution of the Ti profile and the dependence of formation of Ti3+ on the implantation conditions, annealing ambient and temperature in this regime. At these annealing temperatures the Ti diffuses substantially. For anneals up to 1500°C, the reducing ambient produces the higher PL yields. At 1700°C, annealing in Ar results in higher PL yields whilst the reducing ambient leads to oxygen loss from the near-surface region and a concurrent reduction in PL yield. Annealing at 1700°C in Ar allows higher concentrations of Ti to be incorporated into sapphire in the 3+ oxidation state.
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Jeffrey C McCallum, Jeffrey C McCallum, } "Formation of Ti:sapphire via high-temperature processing of Ti-implanted sapphire crystals", Proc. SPIE 5277, Photonics: Design, Technology, and Packaging, (25 March 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.531802; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.531802


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