25 March 2004 Limitations of proximity-effect correction for electron-beam patterning of photonic crystals
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We investigate the patterning-accuracy limits of proximity-effect corrected (PEC) electron-beam lithography applied to the fabrication of photonic crystals (PhC's). Energy-intensity distribution simulations reveal that conventional dose-modulation PEC techniques present a lower limit of the best attainable hole-radius variation of approximately 1% for a generic PhC structure, while a PEC method proposed by Watson theoretically should yield perfect correction. Simulation results were verified experimentally and additionally we introduce a new method to determine the beam-broadening parameter α. We analyzed the impact of geometrical key parameters of PhC's on achievable patterning accuracy and showed that proximity effects impose severe limitations on the patterning of structures with large filling factors and/or small lattice constants. Furthermore, we performed a sensitivity analysis on the proximity parameters and showed that overestimation of the backscatter efficiency can actually improve the lithographic accuracy and mimic the Watson-PEC method to a certain degree.
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Robert Wuest, Robert Wuest, Christoph Hunziker, Christoph Hunziker, Franck Robin, Franck Robin, Patric Strasser, Patric Strasser, Daniel Erni, Daniel Erni, Heinz Jackel, Heinz Jackel, "Limitations of proximity-effect correction for electron-beam patterning of photonic crystals", Proc. SPIE 5277, Photonics: Design, Technology, and Packaging, (25 March 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.522316; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.522316

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