25 March 2004 Optimization of organic light emitting diode structures
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Abstract
In this work we present detailed analysis of the emitted radiation spectrum from tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) based OLEDs as a function of: the choice of cathode, the thickness of organic layers, and the position of the hole transport layer/Alq3 interface. The calculations fully take into account dispersion in glass substrate, indium tin oxide anode, and in the organic layers, as well as the dispersion in the metal cathode. Influence of the incoherent transparent substrate (1 mm glass substrate) is also fully accounted for. Four cathode structures have been considered: Mg/Ag, Ca/Ag, LiF/Al, and Ag. For the hole transport layer, N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) was considered. As expected, emitted radiation is strongly dependent on the position of the emissive layer inside the cavity and its distance from the metal cathode. Although our optical model for an OLED does not explicitly include exciton quenching in vicinity of the metal cathode, designs placing emissive layer near the cathode are excluded to avoid unrealistic results. Guidelines for designing devices with optimum emission efficiency are presented. Finally, the optimized devices were fabricated and characterized and experimental and calculated emission spectra were compared.
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Jesse C.S. Chan, Aleksandar D. Rakic, C. Y. Kwong, A. B. Djurisic, M. L. Majewski, W. K. Chan, Po Ching Chui, "Optimization of organic light emitting diode structures", Proc. SPIE 5277, Photonics: Design, Technology, and Packaging, (25 March 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.522861; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.522861
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