12 December 2003 Low-temperature solder for laser tissue welding
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Proceedings Volume 5287, Laser Florence 2002: A Window on the Laser Medicine World; (2003) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.544880
Event: Laser Florence 2002: A Window on the Laser Medicine World, 2002, Florence, Italy
In this study, a two layer (TL) solid solder was developed with a fixed thickness to minimize the difference in temperature across the solder (ΔT) and to weld at low temperature. Solder strips comprising two layers (65% albumin, 35% water) were welded onto rectangular sections of dog small intestine by a diode laser (λ = 808 nm). The laser delivered a power of 170 ± 10 mW through an optical fiber (spot size approximately 1 mm) for 100 seconds. A solder layer incorporated also a dye (carbon black, 0.25%) to absorb the laser radiation. A thermocouple and an infrared thermometer system recorded the temperatures at the tissue interface and at the external solder surface, during welding. The repaired tissue was tested for tensile strength by a calibrated tensiometer. The TL strips were able to minimize ΔT (12 ± 4°C) and control the temperature at tissue-interface. The strips fused on tissue at 55≤T≤62°C had higher tensile strength than the strips soldered at 51≤T<55°C (19.1 ± 6.6 versus 13.1 ± 6.4 gmf). The solid solder could efficiently weld at 60°C as it became insoluble and formed stable bonds with tissue. Fluid albumin solders, by contrast, requires temperatures ≥70°C for tissue repair, which cause more irreversible thermal damage.
© (2003) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Antonio Lauto, Robert B. Stewart, D. Felsen, John Foster, Laura Poole-Warren, Dix P. Poppas, "Low-temperature solder for laser tissue welding", Proc. SPIE 5287, Laser Florence 2002: A Window on the Laser Medicine World, (12 December 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.544880; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.544880

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