28 May 2004 Modeling and measuring the effects of domain walls in liquid crystal displays
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In many applications, the presence of domain walls limits the performance of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in terms of brightness, contrast and response speed. Examples are found in wide-viewing-angle LCDs in which each pixel contains domains with different director orientations. Microscope measurements of various types of LCDs are presented and compared with the results of advanced two- and three-dimensional simulations. The background of the modeling programs is reviewed, especially if new methods are used. One example is that of a double-domain twisted-nematic (TN) LCD configuration that was made using photo-alignment. The shape of the domain wall and its effect on the transmitted intensity are described correctly by simulations. In another example it is shown that the experimental results for in-plane switching (IPS) structures can be understood with the help of advanced optical simulation methods that take into account diffraction effects. In a final example, the occurrence of domain walls in liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) is discussed.
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Dick K. G. de Boer, "Modeling and measuring the effects of domain walls in liquid crystal displays", Proc. SPIE 5289, Liquid Crystal Materials, Devices, and Applications X and Projection Displays X, (28 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.526348; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.526348

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