28 May 2004 Pupil detection in photo ID
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This paper presents a novel algorithm for locating pupils in a portrait image for ID card application. The proposed algorithm composed of three steps; skin detection, eye detection, and pupil detection. Skin detection for reducing the region of interest employs three modified single Gaussian skin models. In the second step, candidates of horizontal and vertical eye locations are found by utilizing amount of deviation in R channel with an image that is cropped by skin detection. A small block centered at obtained coarse location is then further processed in pupil detection to find a precise pupil location. This step involves Pupil Index that measures the characteristics of pupil. If more than two locations are competing, ratios of Pupil Index and geometry rules are involved to select pupil locations. Experiments show that the algorithm successfully locates pupils. However, more works may need to be done on images that are rotated and/or tilted to a high degree.
© (2004) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Kyungtae Hwang, "Pupil detection in photo ID", Proc. SPIE 5298, Image Processing: Algorithms and Systems III, (28 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.526678; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.526678

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