7 June 2004 High-accuracy simulation method for CCD image sensors below 2.5-μm square cell size
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We found that accurate estimation of the actual resist patterns and impurity profiles is the key point in the case of image sensors below 2.5 um square cell size. We apply a resist patterning process model to our process/device simulation. In the photolithography process simulation, each patterned resist layer exhibits own resist corner rounding regarding as differences such as resist thickness and wavelength of stepper. For the ion implant processes and thermal processes, channeling and doped impurity diffusion models are newly applied. We introduced two dimensional Monte Carlo simulation in order to estimate channelings affected by impurity species, accelerating voltage of implanter and crystallographic orientation. This enables to get impurity profiles of implant processes with mega order accelerating energy. Three dimensional impurity diffusion profiles can be obtained by using the optimized ratio of lateral diffusion to perpendicular diffusion. We have confirmed the advantage of the new simulation method by evaluation of device characteristics in small size CCDs.
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Koji Kikuchi, Ichiro Murakami, Toshihiro Kawamura, Mitsunori Kimura, Kazushi Kubota, Hiroe Kamata, Hideo Kanbe, Tadakuni Narabu, "High-accuracy simulation method for CCD image sensors below 2.5-μm square cell size", Proc. SPIE 5301, Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications V, (7 June 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.541011; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.541011

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