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22 June 2004 A wavelet watermarking algorithm based on a tree structure
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We describe a blind watermarking technique for digital images. Our technique constructs an image-dependent watermark in the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain and inserts the watermark in the most signifcant coefficients of the image. The watermarked coefficients are determined by using the hierarchical tree structure induced by the DWT, similar in concept to embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) compression. If the watermarked image is attacked or manipulated such that the set of significant coefficients is changed, the tree structure allows the correlation-based watermark detector to recover synchronization. Our technique also uses a visual adaptive scheme to insert the watermark to minimize watermark perceptibility. The visual adaptive scheme also takes advantage of the tree structure. Finally, a template is inserted into the watermark to provide robustness against geometric attacks. The template detection uses the cross-ratio of four collinear points.
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Oriol Guitart Pla, Eugene T. Lin, and Edward J. Delp III "A wavelet watermarking algorithm based on a tree structure", Proc. SPIE 5306, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VI, (22 June 2004);

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