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22 June 2004 Feature-based watermarking scheme for MPEG-I/II video authentication
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This paper presents a new content-fragile watermarking algorithm for the detection and localization of malicious manipulations of MPEG-I/II videos. While being fragile to malicious manipulations, the watermarking scheme is robust against content-preserving manipulations like re-encoding processes. It is a bitstream watermarking method based on 8x8 DCT blocks. One of the main advantages of our scheme is the possibility of localizing positions within the video where modifications occurred. Another main advantage is the portability of the scheme to other multimedia documents based on the 8x8 DCT block domain, e.g. JPEG images. The framework of the watermarking scheme can be divided into three main parts: watermark construction, watermark embedding and watermark detection. We derive a Content Based Message (CBM) from the multimedia document, based on a partial energy relationship between two groups of DCT blocks. Embedding the CBM is based on the Differential Energy Watermarking (DEW) concept. In the detection process we compare the CBM and the retrieved watermark to detect and locate manipulations. Besides the algorithm we present experimental results to demonstrate the feasibility of the scheme. We discuss four experiments representing four typical kinds of malicious manipulations.
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Yuewei Dai, Stefan Thiemert, and Martin Steinebach "Feature-based watermarking scheme for MPEG-I/II video authentication", Proc. SPIE 5306, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VI, (22 June 2004);

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