22 June 2004 Spatial synchronization using watermark key structure
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Recently, we proposed a method for constructing a template for efficient temporal synchronization in video watermarking. Our temporal synchronization method uses a state machine key generator for producing the watermark embedded in successive frames of video. A feature extractor allows the watermark key schedule to be content dependent, increasing the difficulty of copy and ownership attacks. It was shown that efficient synchronization can be achieved by adding temporal redundancy into the key schedule. In this paper, we explore and extend the concepts of our temporal synchronization method to spatial synchronization. The key generator is used to construct the embedded watermark of non-overlapping blocks of the video, creating a tiled structure. The autocorrelation of the tiled watermark contains local maxima or peaks with a grid-like structure, where the distance between the peaks indicates the scale of the watermark and the orientation of the peaks indicate the watermark rotation. Experimental results are obtained using digital image watermarks. Scaling and rotation attacks are investigated.
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Eugene T. Lin, Eugene T. Lin, Edward J. Delp, Edward J. Delp, } "Spatial synchronization using watermark key structure", Proc. SPIE 5306, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VI, (22 June 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.531946; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.531946

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