22 June 2004 Two-dimensional audio watermark for MPEG AAC audio
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Abstract
Since digital music is often stored in a compressed file, it is desirable that an audio watermarking method in a content management system handles compressed files. Using an audio watermarking method that directly manipulates compressed files makes it unnecessary to decompress the files before embedding or detection, so more files can be processed per unit time. However, it is difficult to detect a watermark in a compressed file that has been compressed after the file was watermarked. This paper proposes an MPEG Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) bitstream watermarking method using a two-dimensional pseudo-random array. Detection is done by correlating the absolute values of the recovered MDCT coefficients and the pseudo-random array. Since the embedding algorithm uses the same pseudo-random values for two adjacent overlapping frames and the detection algorithm selects the better frame in the two by comparing detected watermark strengths, it is possible to detect a watermark from a compressed file that was compressed after the watermark was embedded in the original uncompressed file. Though the watermark is not detected as clearly in this case, the watermark can still be detected even when the watermark was embedded in a compressed file and the file was then decompressed, trimmed, and compressed again.
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Ryuki Tachibana, Ryuki Tachibana, "Two-dimensional audio watermark for MPEG AAC audio", Proc. SPIE 5306, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VI, (22 June 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.526243; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.526243
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