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13 July 2004 Compact single-channel Raman detector for macular pigments
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Raman detection of macular pigments (MP) holds promise as a novel noninvasive technology for the quantification of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids, which are thought to prevent or delay the onset of age-related macular degeneration. Using resonant excitation in the visible, we measure the Raman signals that originate from the double-bond stretch vibrations of the p-conjugated carotenoid molecule's carbon backbone. In this paper we describe the construction and performance of a new, compact, and low-cost MP Raman instrument using dielectric, angle-tuned band-pass filters for wavelength selection and single-channel photo-multiplier detection of carotenoid Raman responses. MP concentration measurements are fast and accurate, as seen in experiments with model eyes and living human eyes. The ease and rapidity of Raman MP measurements, the relative simplicity of the instrumentation, the high accuracy of the measurements, and the lack of significant systematic errors should make this technology useful for widespread clinical research.
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Igor V. Ermakov, Maia R. Ermakova, and Werner Gellermann "Compact single-channel Raman detector for macular pigments", Proc. SPIE 5314, Ophthalmic Technologies XIV, (13 July 2004);

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