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1 July 2004 Photothermal guidance for selective photothermolysis with nanoparticles
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Photothermal (PT) technique was applied to optimizing selective photothermolysis of cancer cells and bacteria into which nanoparticles have been incorporated (selective “nanophotothermolysis”). This technique involved first irradiating nanoparticles-penetrated cells with nanosecond pump-laser pulses in the visible spectral ranges. Laser-induced local thermal effects around the nanoparticles in the cancer cells or bacteria were then detected via time-resolved monitoring of temperature-dependent variations of the refractive index. This procedure was accomplished with imaging of a second probe-laser pulse. Analysis of the distinctive temporal shape of the PT response revealed linear and nonlinear phenomena around nanoparticles, such as alteration of local temperature, and bubble-formation-caused cell death accompanied by laser-induced melting and disintegration of particles. The damage threshold was obtained for live cancer cells in vitro depended on the size (range: 2-250 nm) and number of particles, laser energy, and number of pulses. Local heat-based induction of apoptosis and necrosis was controlled in parallel with conventional kits (e.g. trypan blue, Annexin V-propidium iodide) and optical and electron microscopy. The PT technique potentially allowed for the detection of nanoparticles that had been delivered into live cells by direct microinjection, natural diffusion, and selective targeting with antibodies.
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Vladimir P. Zharov, Elena Galitovskaya, and Mark Viegas "Photothermal guidance for selective photothermolysis with nanoparticles", Proc. SPIE 5319, Laser Interaction with Tissue and Cells XV, (1 July 2004);

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