16 June 2004 Modal characteristics of large-aperture ARROW VCSELs
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Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are designed for high power single mode operation. Scalar wave and finite-difference time domain (FDTD) studies indicate large modal discrimination in favor of the fundamental mode for large aperture (8 um) ARROW VCSELs. The modal discrimination mechanisms are identified through the total modal loss and quality factor calculations including polarization dependence. A novel design is presented, utilizing metal absorption loss to help suppress higher-order modes.
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Nam-Heon Kim, Nam-Heon Kim, Tae-Woo Lee, Tae-Woo Lee, Ling Bao, Ling Bao, Susan C. Hagness, Susan C. Hagness, Luke J. Mawst, Luke J. Mawst, "Modal characteristics of large-aperture ARROW VCSELs", Proc. SPIE 5364, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers VIII, (16 June 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.524525; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.524525

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