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6 May 2004 Inherent imaging performance of cesium iodide scintillators
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Columnar structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillators doped with Thallium (Tl) have been used extensively for indirect x-ray imaging detectors. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for systematic investigation of the inherent imaging performance of CsI as a function of thickness and design type. The results will facilitate the optimization of CsI design for different x-ray imaging applications, and allow validation of physical models developed for the light channeling process in columnar CsI layers. CsI samples of different types and thicknesses were obtained from the same manufacturer. They were optimized either for light output (HL) or image resolution (HR), and the thickness ranged between 150 and 600 microns. During experimental measurements, the CsI samples were placed in direct contact with a high resolution CMOS optical sensor with a pixel pitch of 48 microns. The modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector with different CsI configurations were measured experimentally. The aperture function of the CMOS sensor was determined separately, which allows estimation of the MTF of CsI alone. We also measured the pulse height distribution of the light output from both the HL and HR CsI at different x-ray energies, from which the x-ray quantum efficiency, Swank factor and x-ray conversion gain were determined. Our results showed that the MTF at 5 cycles/mm for the HR type is 50 % higher than for the HL, however at a cost of ~ 36 % reduction in light output. The Swank factor below K-edges of Cs and I is 0.91 and 0.93 for the HR and HL types, respectively, which means that their DQE(0) are essentially identical for the same thickness. The presampling MTF decreases as a function of thickness, and the rate of decrease drops as the thickness increases. This indicates that the light channeling process in CsI improves the MTF of thicker layers more significantly than it does for the thinner ones.
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Wei Zhao, Goran Ristic, and John A. Rowlands "Inherent imaging performance of cesium iodide scintillators", Proc. SPIE 5368, Medical Imaging 2004: Physics of Medical Imaging, (6 May 2004);

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