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19 April 2004 Improvement of the detection rate in digital watermarked images against image degradation caused by image processing
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Abstract
In the current environment of medical information disclosure, the general-purpose image format such as JPEG/BMP which does not require special software for viewing, is suitable for carrying and managing medical image information individually. These formats have no way to know patient and study information. We have therefore developed two kinds of ID embedding methods: one is Bit-swapping method for embedding Alteration detection ID and the other is data-imposing method in Fourier domain using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for embedding Original image source ID. We then applied these two digital watermark methods to four modality images (Chest X-ray, Head CT, Abdomen CT, Bone scintigraphy). However, there were some cases where the digital watermarked ID could not be detected correctly due to image degradation caused by image processing. In this study, we improved the detection rate in digital watermarked image using several techniques, which are Error correction method, Majority correction method, and Scramble location method. We applied these techniques to digital watermarked images against image processing (Smoothing) and evaluated the effectiveness. As a result, Majority correction method is effective to improve the detection rate in digital watermarked image against image degradation.
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Masato Nishio, Yutaka Ando M.D., Nobuhiro Tsukamoto M.D., Hironao Kawashima, and Shinya Nakamura "Improvement of the detection rate in digital watermarked images against image degradation caused by image processing", Proc. SPIE 5371, Medical Imaging 2004: PACS and Imaging Informatics, (19 April 2004); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.536288
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