28 April 2004 A prototype low-cost handheld ultrasound imaging system
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Abstract
We describe a very low cost handheld ultrasound system that we are currently developing for routine applications such as image guided needle insertion. We provide a system overview and focus discussion on our beamforming strategy, direct sampled I/Q (DSIQ) beamforming. DSIQ beamforming is a low cost approach that relies on phase rotation of in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) data to implement focusing. The I/Q data are generated by directly sampling the received radio frequency (RF) signal, rather than through conventional baseband demodulation. We describe our efficient hardware implementation of the beamformer, which results in significant reductions in beamformer size and cost. We also present the results of experiments and simulations that compare the DSIQ beamformer to more conventional approaches, namely time delay beamforming and traditional complex demodulated I/Q beamforming. Results that show the effect of an error in the direct sampling process, as well as dependence on signal bandwidth and system f number (f#) are presented. These results indicate that the image quality and robustness of the DSIQ beamformer are adequate for routine applications.
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Karthik Ranganathan, Karthik Ranganathan, Mary K. Santy, Mary K. Santy, Michael I. Fuller, Michael I. Fuller, Shiwei Zhou, Shiwei Zhou, Travis N. Blalock, Travis N. Blalock, John A. Hossack, John A. Hossack, William F. Walker, William F. Walker, } "A prototype low-cost handheld ultrasound imaging system", Proc. SPIE 5373, Medical Imaging 2004: Ultrasonic Imaging and Signal Processing, (28 April 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.537724; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.537724
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