20 May 2004 Scaling studies of capping layer oxidation by water exposure with EUV radiation and electrons
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Silicon capped [Mo/Si] multilayer mirrors (MLM’s) can undergo oxidation by the combined effects of radiation (Extreme Ultraviolet [EUV], electron) and water vapor. This parametric study provides silicon-capped MLM oxidation rate data. The goal of this study was to determine the dependence of silicon oxidation on water vapor pressure and radiation flux density over three orders of magnitude. Previous work1 has shown that electron and 95.3 eV EUV exposures produce similar oxidation. The present study verifies that correlation and examines the effects of EUV and electron flux on the oxidation rate of the Si-capping layer. E-beam and EUV exposed areas on silicon-capped MLM samples were analyzed following radiation exposure by Auger depth profiling to determine the thickness of the oxide grown. A ruthenium (Ru) capped MLM was also exposed for 4-hours, however it showed very little oxidation under the most extreme conditions of our test matrix. Also the effect of varying the primary e-beam voltage (0.5-2.0 keV) on Si-capped MLM was examined, which showed that exposures in the 1-2 keV range produce similar results.
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W. Miles Clift, Leonard Elliott Klebanoff, Charles Tarrio, Steven Grantham, Obert R. Wood, Stefan Wurm, Nora V. Edwards, "Scaling studies of capping layer oxidation by water exposure with EUV radiation and electrons", Proc. SPIE 5374, Emerging Lithographic Technologies VIII, (20 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.537403; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.537403

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