20 May 2004 The erosion of materials exposed to a laser-pulsed-plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) illumination source
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Abstract
A critical issue in the realization of EUV lithography (EUVL) as a production technology is the lifetime of the condenser, the optic in closest proximity to any compact, high-power EUV source. During operation of the Engineering Test Stand (ETS), a full-field, high-power EUVL alpha tool, the silicon/molybdenum multilayer mirrors used as a condenser were eroded by extended exposure to the LPP source. The erosion rate varied considerably, and diagnostic instrumentation on the ETS was not intended to address this issue, so the cause of this erosion was not determined at the time. We present here the results of experiments in which samples of gold, molybdenum, and silicon were exposed to an LPP using a liquid xenon jet as the target. The measured erosion rates suggest a sputtering mechanism. Observations of the plasma environment at the condenser position show the presence of fast ions, which, if they are xenon, have kinetic energies of tens of keV. Such ions would contribute significantly to condenser erosion.
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Richard J. Anderson, Richard J. Anderson, Dean A. Buchenauer, Dean A. Buchenauer, Leonard Elliott Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott Klebanoff, Obert R. Wood, Obert R. Wood, Nora V. Edwards, Nora V. Edwards, } "The erosion of materials exposed to a laser-pulsed-plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) illumination source", Proc. SPIE 5374, Emerging Lithographic Technologies VIII, (20 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.537852; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.537852
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