We earlier developed a series of fluoropolymers (FPRs) for use as first-generation 157-nm photoresist polymers. These FPRs have a partially fluorinated monocyclic structure and provide excellent transparency. However, their etching resistance is low (half that of conventional KrF resists) and an insufficient dissolution rate in tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution. To improve the characteristics of these polymers, while retaining high transparency, we had to redesign the main chain fluoropolymer structure. In this paper, we describe a new monocyclic fluoropolymer structure for a second-generation 157-nm photoresist polymer. This structure also has a fluorine atom in the polymer main chain, as well as a fluoro-containing acidic alcohol group. We synthesized two types of fluoropolymers, ASF-1 and ASF-2. We found that ASF-1 had transparency of 0.18 μm-1, better than that of the FPRs, and the etching resistance was improved. Unfortunately, the dissolution rate was poor. On the other hand, ASF-2 showed even better transparency of 0.1 μm-1, improved etching resistance, and a dissolution rate of more than 600 nm/s, which is sufficient for use as a resist. The introduction of a protecting group (e.g., the methoxymethyl or adamantylmethoxymethyl group) to the hydroxyl group of ASF-2 can be done after the polymerization reaction. Using partially protected ASF-2 with an appropriate protecting group, we were able to fabricate a sub-60-nm line-and-space pattern.