14 May 2004 Effect of background exposure dose upon line-edge roughness (LER)
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Abstract
LER is found to correlate strongest with the background, or flare, portion of the lithographic aerial image contrast, when compared with the image slope and “standard” (max - min)/(max + min) contrast. A large pool of collected data and rigorous statistical analysis of variance conclude with far greater than 99% confidence that as any of these measures of aerial image profile degrade, LER increases. However, the relation between background exposure and LER is by far the most significant.
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Mike V. Williamson, Andrew R. Neureuther, "Effect of background exposure dose upon line-edge roughness (LER)", Proc. SPIE 5376, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXI, (14 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.535623; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.535623
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